Vol 9 (2014)

Table of Contents


Diversity and density of the EM fungal community present in high elevation Fraser fir forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park PDF
Richard Baird, C. Elizabeth Stokes, John Frampton, Benjamin Smith, Clarence Watson, Candace Pilgrim, Mary Scruggs 1-21

A study of the diversity and density of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in two Fraser fir stands near Clingmans Dome, Great Smoky Mountains National Park was conducted over a period of three years. Plots were established in three naturally occurring age class treatments including mature tree, sapling, and low regeneration (no trees) sites.  Lesser vegetation data were determined for nine plant species within all plots including two ferns and two grasses that impeded survival of Fraser fir seedlings. Diversity and densities of vegetation were significantly greater in low regeneration plots as compared to other treatments.  For each plot bryophyte mat forest floor percent occurrence/cover was obtained and percent root colonization/sclerotia of the EM fungus taxa were collected from the three management treatments including 11 decomposers and 33 ectomycorrhizal species. Clavulina cristata occurred in 22.5% of all plots and had a frequency of 1.7% in low regeneration treatments. Four species of Laccaria occurred in 17.3% of all plots, and Laccaria laccata and L. laccata var. pallidifolia were the most common of these species, the former having the highest frequency of occurrence (1.9%) in low regeneration treatments. Four species of Cortinarius occurred in 10.3% of the plots, and Cortinarius anomalus s.l., the most common Cortinarius, occurred in 4.4% of all plots. Seven of the 44 species had significantly greater percent frequency among the three treatments, and six of those were the most frequent in sapling plot treatments at the two locations.  Species found at the two locations were similar, although in 2009 their frequency values were greater than in 2010 and 2011 due to greater total precipitation.  Mature and sapling plot frequency values were significantly greater than those for low regeneration sites due to the low establishment of Fraser fir.  Significant results for species richness, diversity and evenness between years, locations and treatments are present below.  Based on percent frequency values, Laccaria could be used in reforestation of Fraser firs in all plots. A project is underway to evaluate seedling establishment and survival following inoculation with Laccaria spp. on a low regeneration site at Mount Buckley.

Dendrominia burdsallii (Corticiales, Basidiomycota), a new species from Arizona PDF
Karen Nakasone 1-5
Dendrominia burdsallii is proposed as a new species that occurs on bark of living Arbutus arizonica in southern Arizona. Its most striking feature is the very large, narrowly cylindrical to allantoid basidiospores, (30–) 37–50 × 10–12 (–13.5) µm, with hyaline, thin, smooth, acyanophilous walls.

New North American species of Gymnopus PDF
Ronald Petersen, Karen Hughes 1-22
Collections of four Gymnopus taxa are proposed as new species: G. barbipes, G. disjunctus, G. micromphaleoides and G. pseudoluxurians. All are placed in subg. Vestipedes and all are compared with taxa producing similar basidiomata.

A new hypogeous Peziza species that forms ectomycorrhizas with Quercus in California PDF
Matthew Smith 1-10
A new truffle species, Peziza erini sp. nov. (Pezizaceae, Pezizales), is described from xeric oak woodlands in northern California, USA. This fully enclosed and hypogeous Peziza is a member of the latex-producing Peziza succosa clade (the /galactinia ectomycorrhizal lineage). This new species is morphologically most similar to the sympatric species, Peziza infossa, but both morphological and molecular data conclusively show that Peziza erini is unique. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence matches between fruiting bodies of Peziza erini and healthy ectomycorrhizal roots of Quercus douglasii definitively show that this new species is an ectomycorrhizal symbiont of oaks in California’s Mediterranean woodlands.

The Arboretum at the University of Guelph, Ontario: An urban refuge for lichen biodiversity PDF
R. T. McMullin, Jose Maloles, Chris Earley, Steven Newmaster 1-16

Southern Ontario is the most densely populated region in Canada and urbanization is extensive. As a result, a large number of natural areas have been set aside in the cities, such as parks and conservation areas. The value of these areas for conserving lichen biodiversity has not been investigated in Ontario. Therefore, between 2008 and 2014, we systematically examined the lichens and allied fungi in the Arboretum at the University of Guelph, a 165 hectare park and nature reserve centrally located in the City of Guelph, Ontario. One hundred and four species in 55 genera were recorded and several are considered rare. Caloplaca soralifera is recorded for the first time in Canada. Provincially, Acarospora moenium is recorded for the second time, Bacidina egenula and Strangospora moriformis are reported for the third time, and Evernia prunastri was collected for the second time in southern Ontario in over a century. An undescribed species of Chaenotheca with distinctive brown-orange pruina on the capitulum and mazaedium was also discovered along with nine species that have a provincial status rank of S1 (critically imperilled), S2 (imperilled), or S3 (vulnerable). The native old-growth forests contained the greatest number of lichen species, particularly the largest one, which borders the wetland in the Nature Reserve. Investigations for lichens throughout Guelph revealed two species that were not found in the Arboretum. However, a substantial number of species were discovered in the park that were not found anywhere else in the city. Our results show that the Arboretum is a refuge for many lichen species within this urban landscape.

Boletus rubriceps, a new species of porcini from the southwestern USA PDF
David Arora, Jonathan Frank 1-11
The porcini (Boletus s.s.) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a white tube layer at first, reticulate stipe, and white flesh.  The type species, B. edulis, is widespread and morphologically variable, with very little genetic variation from Eurasia to North America.  Here we describe a new species of porcini, Boletus rubriceps, from the southwestern USA. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) distinguish this species from the Eurasian B. edulis and North American B. edulis var. grandedulis.

Discovery of Gyalideopsis mexicana in the United States PDF
James Lendemer, Erin Tripp 1-4
Gyalideopsis mexicana is reported for the first time from the United States, from a specimen collected in 1957 by Sam Shushan in Mora County, New Mexico. The species is illustrated and the range of the species is discussed.

A new species of Russula, subgenus Compactae from California PDF
David Arora, Nhu Nguyen 1-7

A new species of Russula, subgenus Compactae, is described growing in association with coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) in California.  This species has previously been referred to locally as Russula subnigricans Hongo and Russula eccentrica Peck, but morphological and DNA evidence show that it is a distinct species which we call R. cantharellicola. Our analysis shows that there are multiple clades of what is called R. subnigricans, and that the California species clearly falls within one of those clades. As R. subnigricans has caused deaths in Japan, China, and Taiwan, the California species should be cautioned as potentially dangerous to those who consume it.

A new species of Gomphus from southeastern United States PDF
Ronald Petersen, Karen Hughes, David Lewis 1-13

Gomphus ludovicianus is proposed as a new species. It is described morphologically, placed phylogenetically and compared with G. crassipes from the Atlas Mountains of North Africa.