Vol 1 (2006)

Table of Contents


Phyllactinia guttata is a Host for Cladosporium uredinicola in Washington State PDF
F. M. Dugan, D. A. Glawe 1-5

The powdery mildew fungus Phyllactinia guttata, parasitic on European hazelnut (Corylus avellana), is a host for the fungicolous hyphomycete Cladosporium uredinicola in Washington State. Mucilaginous penicillate cells at the apices of the Phyllactinia ascocarps are the primary site for colonization and sporulation by C. uredinicola. Range of morphological variation in C. uredinicola from P. guttata was congruent with previous descriptions from hosts in Uredinales.

Epiphytic lichens along gradients in topography and stand structure in western Oregon, USA PDF
Shanti Berryman, Bruce McCune 1-38
Epiphytic macrolichen communities were compared among forest stand types in the Blue River watershed of western Oregon. Stand types were defined by stand structure, according to age classes of the younger tree cohort and remnant tree retention. Remnant trees were those in an older cohort that remained following a stand disturbance that initiated tree regeneration, such as a timber harvest or natural forest fire. Stands were located in upland and riparian forests of two vascular plant series (western hemlock and true fir). Presence and abundance of all epiphytic macrolichen species were sampled in a 0.4 ha circular plot in 117 stands. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination revealed that the strongest differences in lichen community composition were related to elevation, which was correlated with vascular plant series. Cyanolichens were largely limited to lower elevation forests (470 – 950 m) of the western hemlock series, while matrix lichens and forage lichens with green-algal photobionts dominated high elevation stands (950 – 1470 m) of the true fir series. Lichen communities differed with stand age. In even-aged young stands, lichen communities were species poor and lichen community composition differed from all other stand types. In general, macrolichen species richness varied little among stand types. However, cyanolichen species were most diverse in old-growth and mature stands at lower elevations. Lichen communities in young stands (< 20 yr) with remnants differed from those in even-aged young forests in both plant series. As a stand develops, the presence of remnant trees may accelerate the development of the lichen community towards those found in older stands. We infer that remnant trees serve as refugia for lichens through a disturbance and provide lichen inoculum to younger trees. Hardwood patches were hotspots for lichen diversity, particularly cyanolichens that are infrequent on conifers. Hardwood patches were most prevalent along perennial streams. To maintain and enhance lichen communities at a landscape level, forest managers must consider the importance of features such as late-successional stands, remnant trees, hardwoods, and riparian areas to lichen communities. These features are especially important to retain in or near regenerating forests to promote colonization by dispersal-limited lichens.

Alternaria malorum: A mini-review with new records for hosts and pathogenicity PDF
J. Goetz, F. M. Dugan 1-8
Modern host-fungus indices and databases contain deceptively few entries for Alternaria malorum or its synonym, Cladosporium malorum. Close inspection of literature from the 1930s through the 1960s indicates more hosts and wider prevalence than more modern indices and databases indicate. Reports from 2002 to the present document diverse additional hosts in the Pacific Northwest, including this report from roots of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii, the first reports from gymnosperms. Cherry tomato and grape tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were found to be hosts for A. malorum by artificial inoculation. Rarely documented in synoptic indices or databases in the last 20 years, the Cladosporium-like C. malorum is neither rare nor a true Cladosporium.

Cortinarius lucorum (Fr.) Karst., a Populus associate from North America PDF
P. Brandon Matheny, Joe F. Ammirati 1-10
Cortinarius lucorum is reported from low-elevation forests in Washington where it associates with Populus trichocarpa . It shares affinities with C. saturninus, a species associated with SalixPopulusCorylus, and perhaps other woody angiosperm hosts. Both species share a bulbous stipe, thick veil, and violaceous coloration in at least some part of the basidiomata. Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA tandem repeat indicates a single base pair difference between North American and northern European material. These data also affirm the autonomy of C. lucorum and a possible sister relationship with C. saturninus.

New North American host records for Seifertia azaleae, cause of Rhododendron bud blight disease PDF
Dean A. Glawe, Rita L. Hummel 1-6
Seifertia azaleae, cause of Rhododendron bud blight disease, is reported to occur on Rhododendron hemsleyanum, Rhododendron ponticum, and several named hybrids in western Washington State. This appears to be the first report of S. azaleaeon these hosts in North America.

Cortinarius rubellus Cooke from British Columbia, Canada and Western Washington, USA PDF
Christie P. Robertson, Leesa Wright, Sharmin Gamiet, Noelle Machnicki, Joe Ammirati, Joshua Birkebak, Colin Meyer, Alissa Allen 1-7
Cortinarius rubellus is reported from British Columbia and Western Washington. This is the first report of C. rubellus from western North American since it was published as C. rainierensis by A. H. Smith and D. E. Stuntz in 1950.

Genetic Structure of Cantharellus formosus Populations in a Second-Growth Temperate Rain Forest of the Pacific Northwest PDF
Regina S. Redman, Judith Ranson, Rusty J. Rodriguez 1-13
Cantharellus formosus growing on the Olympic Peninsula of the Pacific Northwest was sampled from September – November 1995 for genetic analysis. A total of ninety-six basidiomes from five clusters separated from one another by 3 - 25 meters were genetically characterized by PCR analysis of 13 arbitrary loci and rDNA sequences. The number of basidiomes in each cluster varied from 15 to 25 and genetic analysis delineated 15 genets among the clusters. Analysis of variance utilizing thirteen apPCR generated genetic molecular markers and PCR amplification of the ribosomal ITS regions indicated that 81.41% of the genetic variation occurred between clusters and 18.59% within clusters. Proximity of the basidiomes within a cluster was not an indicator of genotypic similarity. The molecular profiles of each cluster were distinct and defined as unique populations containing 2 - 6 genets. The monitoring and analysis of this species through non-lethal sampling and future applications is discussed.

First report of white rust of Aurinia saxatilis (Alyssum saxatile) caused by Albugo candida in Washington State PDF
Dean A. Glawe 1-5
Albugo candida, cause of white rust, is reported to occur on Aurinia saxatilis (synonym: Alyssum saxatile). The pathogen was found on landscape plants growing in a private garden in Seattle, WA where it over-wintered on infected leaves. This appears to be the first report of A. candida on this host in the USA.

Russula crassotunicata identified as host for Dendrocollybia racemosa PDF
N. Machnicki, L. L. Wright, A. Allen, C. P. Robertson, C. Meyer, J. M. Birkebak, J. F. Ammirati 1-7
Russula crassotunicata was identified as a host species for the mycosaprobic basidiomycete Dendrocollybia racemosa. Sclerotia of the latter species were harvested from the gills of sporocarps known to be R. crassotunicata and isolated in pure culture. DNA sequences of the ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of these sclerotia were used to identify and phylogenetically place the species as D. racemosa. This paper represents the first report of a confirmed host for D. racemosa.

Western Mycology Loses a Leader and Friend: In Memoriam Orson K. Miller, Jr (1930—2006) PDF
C. L. Cripps 1-6
The life and work of the late mycologist Orson K. Miller is reviewed.

First Report of Erysiphe (Uncinuliella) flexuosa in western North America PDF
Dean A. Glawe, Frank M. Dugan 1-11
Erysiphe flexuosa, a powdery mildew parasite of Aesculus species, is believed to have originated in North America where distribution records were confined to regions east of the Rocky Mountains. The fungus recently was found in eastern Washington State and northern Idaho. The fungus can be distinguished readily from other powdery mildews attacking Aesculus species by the presence of two distinctive kinds of chasmothecial appendages. Consistent with previous reports on similar species, observations determined that subulate appendages formed first, on dorsal sides of chasmothecia. The longer, uncinate appendages formed equatorially during later chasmothecial maturation. There are no Aesculus species native to northwest North America that could have hosted an undetected population of the fungus. It appears likely that E. flexuosa became established relatively recently in the inland Pacific Northwest, possibly being introduced on infected host material, similar to the situation in Europe where several reports documented the presence of the fungus beginning in 2000.

Synopsis of genera of Erysiphales (powdery mildew fungi) occurring in the Pacific Northwest PDF
Dean A. Glawe 1-27
The Erysiphales (powdery mildew fungi) are Ascomycetes of major economic significance. Recent taxonomic research, mostly in Asia and Europe, has produced major changes in genus concepts complicating identification of powdery mildew fungi and communication about the diseases they cause. This paper provides a summary of genus concepts applicable to powdery mildew fungi known in the Pacific Northwest, as well as dichotomous keys based on both anamorphic and teleomorphic features, and brief summaries of diagnostic features. Salient morphological features are illustrated with photographs made from recent collections from the region. The following genera are included: ArthrocladiellaBlumeriaErysipheGolovinomycesLeveillulaNeoerysiphe,PhyllactiniaPodosphaera, and Sawadaea. Consistent with modern systems of classification, MicrosphaeraUncinula, andUncinuliella are subsumed within the modern concept of Erysiphe, and Sphaerotheca species are included in Podosphaera.